In 1954 the holiday formerly known as Armistice Day, which celebrated the Armistice that ended World War I, was renamed “Veterans Day” in the United States. This was ostensibly due to a belief that all veterans should be honored, not only those who fought in World War I. However, the change has greater significance.
Most importantly, Armistice Day glorified peace, while Veterans Day glorifies the sacrifices of war. Partly, this is because of the date: the end of the war, not the decisive battle or the turn of the tide (like D-Day, for example). Beyond that, Armistice Day kept alive at least some understanding of how the armistice came about: through the revolutionary uprising of the German people, which began with a naval mutiny in Kiel and Wilhelmshavn on October 29-30 and spread rapidly through the entire country, bringing the Socialist Party into power, electing revolutionary councils, forcing the abdication of the Kaiser, and proclaiming a republic in Germany on November 9. The military, which had been resisting Woodrow Wilson’s peace terms, now had no choice but to accept them, leading to the Armistice on November 11.
The revolution did not fare well. Socialists and Communists were unable to work together, leading to a left-wing insurrection in Berlin in January 1919 that was put down by the military, and the resulting murder of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, the leaders of the Spartakusbund. The bad blood between these two left parties made it easier for Hitler to come to power, as they were unable to unite against him. All the same, November 11 marks the ending of a war by a popular revolution, and it is unfortunate to see this history forgotten behind the name of “Veterans Day.”
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